For anybody interested in realistic and effective kata bunkai (and close enough as I know that many readers are in other countries), Sensei Paul Mitchell (my former instructor) will be holding a kata and bunkai course on Sunday 6th February. This is open to practitioners of any style of Karate or TKD as long as they are above 4th Kyu/Kup.
The first section will break down the kata Gojushiho Sho and its form (from a Shotokan perspective). The second half will look at the kata bunkai (practical applications). Sensei Mitchell is an expert at karate bunkai and an acknowledged authority within the Traditional Shotokan Karate Association.
Following on from Part 1, many people will tell you that fighting is more mental than physical and that is especially true of the pre-fight build-up as discussed in Part 1. The aggressor shouts, swears and threatens to intimidate you and take away your will to fight. At the same time, he is building himself up and preparing himself for his assault. It is at this stage that fights are very often won or lost, before any blows are exchanged. This is why (as previously mentioned) I think it a good idea for people to do some kind of scenario/adrenalin training fairly early in their martial arts training. At the bottom of this post are some links where you can go to find some of this type of training. It is by no means exhaustive, so if you know of any other resources where people can get this kind of training to supplement their martial art, then please feel free to add more links in the comments section below.
Traditional martial arts do however have some built in factors to deal with the effects adrenalin, albeit a much longer route. One method is the emphasis on perfecting techniques. The continual repetition of technique builds up a strong neural pathway in the brain. When under pressure, we know that our technique will not be 100% perfect, but the stronger that neural pathway is, the better that technique will be and it will fire under pressure without having to think about it. The worst thing under pressure is for you to have to stop to think, “how” do I punch/kick/strike/strangle/whatever. You want to be able to just think “punch”, the neural pathway fires and body just does it. You don’t want to be thinking, “I should twist my fist at the end of the punch” or “I mustn’t pull my hand back before I punch”, or any other such detail of the technique. By the time you’ve thought it, its too late. Training good basics over a long period of time will ensure a reflex responses which could be vital at that split second when you most need it.
Also, as mentioned in Part 1, an effect of adrenalin is that blood goes to the major muscle groups when threatened. Well in the main, our basic techniques primarily utilise the major muscle groups, so they are designed to work under these pressures.
The pre-arranged sparring is also useful, especially as you get onto the higher level exercises. Now people will criticize these exercises as unrealistic, and to a certain extent they are. Thugs do not step back into a stance, announce their attack from safely out of range, then attack you with a nice clean cut martial arts technique. They are more likely to be up in your face, shouting and swearing, posturing (pea-cocking) rather going into a formal stance or guard, then launch a surprise attack.
However, our formal sparring exercises do serve several functions. They help us to learn a sense of timing and distancing. After you have bowed and taken up your position, you should have an expression of deadly seriousness. No smiles or nods to your training partner because he’s your friend. This is where you learn to apply psychological pressure to each other. You learn to project it and to receive it. This is not quite the same as the scenario based training mentioned above but it does have some similarities. When somebody steps back into his stance, looks you straight in the eye with a deadly serious expression, even though you may know his attack in advance, you also know that it will be fast and powerful and if you don’t block or evade it, you’ll get hit with it. This is a form of pressure training. If you are used to doing this exercise in a “friendly” manner with your training partner, then you are missing the point!
What about Kata (forms/patterns)? When practising, you should put your full intent into your movements. This is a mental exercise as well as a physical one. In an earlier posting, Kata: Training Beyond Technique, (which I recommend you read if you haven’t already) I described an old basketball experiment involving 3 groups of volunteers. Each group shot balls at the hoop. One group practiced, one group did nothing and the third group just visualised shooting balls through the hoop. I’m not sure of the exact results, but it was something like this:
The group that practiced improved by about 24%.
The group that did not practice made no noticeable difference.
The group that merely visualised (but did not actually practice) made about 23% improvement.
You see, the subconscious brain does not does not recognise the difference between what is real and what is imagined. If you watch a scary movie, you find your heartbeat increase . . . . yet your conscious mind knows that you are safe and sound snuggled up on your sofa.
The subconscious mind however, reacts to the fantasy of the film and your body responds accordingly. When practicing your kata, you should not just practice to perfect the movements (though that is important too), but you should visualise yourself fighting real opponents. Visualise with as much intensity as you can, actual combat as you practice your moves.
In the words of Gichin Funikoshi (who introduced Karate from Okinawa to Japan and founder of Shotokan):
“Since karate is a martial art, you must practice with uttermost seriousness from the very beginning. This means going beyond diligent or sincere training. In every step, in every movement of your hand, you must imagine yourself facing an opponent with a drawn sword. Each and every punch must be made with the power of your entire body behind it, with the feeling of destroying your opponent with a single blow. You must believe that if this punch fails, you will forfeit your own life. Thinking this, your mind and energy will be concentrated, and your spirit will express itself to the fullest.
No matter how much time you devote to practice, no matter how many months and years pass, if your practice consists of no more than moving your arms and legs, you might as well be studying a dance. You will never come to know the true meaning karate”.
The old Okinawan masters understood the power of visualisation and training the mind. Today, we often focus too much on the form of the technique rather than the function. This does not train our mind (and I’m guilty of this too). If we train as Funikoshi says, we introduce on-going scenario/adrenalin training into every aspect of our martial art.
An arguement sometimes put forward is that the finer applications requiring fine motor skills and co-ordination will not work well in an adrenalized state as the blood goes to the major muscle groups and away from our brain and smaller muscles. However, I partially disagree. Note . . . I said, “partially”.
If you train as Funikoshi says, will utmost seriousness, imagining that you face a man with a sword (or bottle/knife), then you train these fine skills under the regular effect of a small amount of adrenalin. If you only train for form, or if you only train with a very “friendly” training partner who does not put you under pressure, then yes, I agree that your fine motor skill will not work under the influence of an adrenalin dump. The power of your mind and imagination is a very important tool for making your martial art much more functional as it was designed to be.
In the words of Albert Einstein:
“Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.”
Here are links I mentioned at the beginning where you can go to find scenario/adrenalin based training (please feel free to add more in the comments section below) : –
More and more these days, people are talking about the effects of adrenalin during a fight and/or fight build up and a number of training programs have been built up around it. But should traditional martial arts alone be enough to prepare us for the effects of adrenalin and what did the masters of old do about it?
For the sake of this article, I will focus on an average thug, trying to pick a fight with you, rather than a professional mugger/rapist, whose tactics may be a bit more slick. From the moment that somebody starts to pick a fight with you, and enquiries of you with great verbal eloquence and dexterity, “who the f*** you looking at”, what are the effects of adrenalin that you can expect to experience? Well this will vary from person to person, especially if you compare somebody who is an experienced street fighter against somebody who is not.
Quite a lot has been written about this in recent years, but if you are new to this subject then please let me recap for you. One of the main effects of adrenalin is that blood flows to major muscle groups in preparation for fight or flight. Side effects of this are:
limbs shake (especially legs).
the brain does not function so well and you can’t always think straight (less blood).
fine motor skills deteriorate (accuracy) as gross motor skills improve (stronger, faster).
Other possible effects of adrenalin include:
sight becomes tunnel vision, focusing on your antagonist (making you vulnerable to surprise attacks from other directions).
you may feel the need to empty your bowels (this is the body trying to make itself lighter for fight or flight).
voice may become higher.
It is important though to note that these effects will vary from person to person. The street predators or an experienced street fighter may not seem to show these effects quite as much as they are used to “training” in the adrenalin zone. Probably the worst side effect of all is that you may “freeze”. People often talk about “fight or flight”, but they forget about the “freeze”.
First of all, why do we freeze?
Well its an out of date defence mechanism that goes back to caveman times. If Mr Ugg gets up in the morning, walks out of his cave on his own, without his spear for a quick stretch and yawn and spots a sabre tooth tiger, he has no way of out-fighting the beast and is unlikely to out-run him either. If he freezes, the beast may possibly not notice him and move on (many wild animals do this). Of course this is no longer an appropriate defence mechanism when we are dealing with human predators who want to mug, rape or beat us up, as opposed to a large furry or scaly predator who wants to eat us. It is however, a mechanism that plays straight into the hand of the human predator.
The eye detects movement much more quickly than it detects shapes. Before you can identify a shape, you often “catch something out of the corner of your eye”. I have read that the British SAS (special forces) when working in a jungle will walk for 10 minutes, then stay still for 20 minutes; walk 10, still 20, etc. With so many different shapes and colors in a jungle, this ensures that they see the enemy before the enemy sees them. It can be difficult to make out a human form in all that foliage, but you will see the movement. Hence even our special forces intentionally “freeze” for 20 minutes out of every 30.
If we train regular martial arts, should we be concerned about this. Well, even trained martial artists have been known to freeze when confronted with the raw aggression of a street predator. I have attended a FAST (Fear, Adrenalin, Stress Training) Defense Course, where part of the training is to subject people to this type of aggression in a controlled environment to teach them to deal with it without freezing. One lady on the course who was an experienced Tae Kwon Do exponent started to cry when the instructor yelled at her that she was a “f***ing bitch”.
Now for many of us who train in a Dojo/Dojangs where swearing is not allowed, it may seem very strange that an instructor should use this type of language, but that is the language of the street predator or abuser. The lady’s TKD experience had not prepared her for this kind of verbal abuse and had that happened on the street, it could all be too late at that point! In fairness to this particular lady, she recovered her composure, stood her ground and completed the course. She probably took a much larger step forward that day then anybody else on the course, so I have full respect for her.
But it goes to show that traditional martial arts training often does not prepare you for this type of raw aggression. It does not always prepare you for the pre-fight build up ritual. And it usually is a ritual, as the aggressor builds themselves up whilst psyching you down at the same time.
In his book, Dead Or Alive, pioneering author Geoff Thompson describes how the dialogue can almost show a countdown. The sentences get shorter and shorter until they are just one syllable, then they strike. It start with something like; “You looking at me, you want a piece of me”, to “come on then”, to simply “yeah”! Geoff emphasises that it will not go like this every time, but if it does then you are listening to a countdown, so be ready. Better still, strike first.
People who have experience as a street fighter (as many experienced martial artists have in younger days) sometimes have trouble relating to how this is a problem for those that have not had much real life experience. They see dealing with aggression as common sense. But as the old saying goes, “common sense is not very common”.
What do you actually do when you hear those dreaded words, “who you looking at”? If you act passively, you fuel their confidence. If you jump into your fighting stance and say “come on then, I do Karate”; sometimes you may face them down, but sometimes it will be taken as a challenge so you end up in a fight you didn’t want anyway. Not only that, but you’ve just tipped him off on how you are likely to fight so he will be a bit more cautious.
Even if you match your aggressor with shouting, threats and abuse so that he feels fear and he actually wants to back down, he may not back down if his mates are watching. Sometimes they will risk taking a beating rather than loosing face. And even if you win, that’s your night ruined as most normal people do not enjoy fighting.
If you are confident that you can hit hard and you believe that if you are able to land a good clean shot that you can finish the fight (or at least knock them down long enough for you to escape) then another tactic is to act passively and scared to lull them into a false sense of security. You let them confidently puff themselves up, so that they don’t feel the need to put up a guard, then when they get close enough and you have a good target, you hit it as hard as you can and then get out of there.
Now these tactics sound quite straight forward. However, as mentioned above, when you have just had an adrenalin dump, blood goes to major muscles and goes away from your brain. You are therefore not able to think as well or as quickly as you would in the dojo/dojang. Under these circumstances, because the brain is a bit impaired it will tend to resort to it last experience in a similar scenario. If the last experience in this kind of scenario is cower, that is what you are likely to do again (not always, but in most cases).
Traditional martial arts usually train us for when the punches start flying, but we often do not train for the pre-fight ritual. When we’re not even allowed to swear or yell at each other in the dojo/dojang, how can it prepare us?
For people who have little or no real life experience at street fighting, some kind of adrenalin training is very important. If nothing else, when the adrenalin hits the blood stream and the brain does not function at full capacity, then the last experience is one of action, not one of cowering, so that should be the experience that the person falls back on. Adrenalin training is scenario based, whereas traditional martial art training is technique based.
By scenario based, I mean that the participants actually act out a scenario with one person playing the role of aggressor, shouting abuse and swearing whilst the defender learns to feel the adrenalin, operate under its influence and become de-sensitized to the abuse and threats. Scenario based training can give you very quick results in a short space of time, the main result being that it will help to overcome the “freeze” reflex. Technique based training will take very much longer to achieve this.
To summarize, scenario based training will give limited results, but gives results very very quickly. It won’t make you a fighter, but it may help you to diffuse a possible fight so that you don’t have to fight at all. Technique based training can take you to very high levels of speed, power, accuracy and co-ordination; but it takes a long time to learn. It can also take some many many years for a timid person to overcome that timidity in the face of raw aggression. That’s a lot years that a timid person stays vulnerable, however good his/her technique may be.
I personally believe that the two go hand in glove with each other and that every martial artist should at some point do some scenario training, preferably at the beginning of their martial art careers. It is often said that fighting is more mental than physical and a brilliant technique in the dojo/dojang is completely useless if it freezes on the street.
OK, the title may sound a bit bizarre, but bare with me and all will become clear. I hope.
Why is it that although martial arts are supposed to make us better, calmer, more relaxed people; that some of us actually enjoy practicing violent applications that can hurt, maim or possibly kill another human being? Is it some deep down psychopathic instinct that some of us just can’t overcome?
The fact that some of us enjoy practicing the violent applications does not mean that we are violent people. However, to enjoy practicing them and to be able to apply them effectively, one must be able to dig down into the darker part of our human nature. We must delve into that part of us that is prepared to hurt, cripple and destroy another human being. This is what I (tongue in cheek) loosely refer to as “turning to the dark side”.
I must emphasise that there is an enormous difference between being prepared to harm another human being (depending on circumstances) and wanting to harm another human being.
So why, when we are striving to become better people, do we actively look to engage and develop this “dark side” of our human nature?
Firstly, whether you are religious or not, Western society is dominated by Christian values and doctrine. As such, so much of our behaviour is considered right and wrong, good and evil. Basically it is a culture of opposites, you must be one or the other. However, Eastern philosophies and even our own pre-Christian Pagan philosophies would often see things more as two sides of the same coin rather than opposites. A balance. Yin and Yang.
By engaging the “dark side” of our nature, we are actually more able to avoid confrontations by our outer confidence, as well as being more able to help others in distress. To quote from Spiderman, “with great power comes great responsibility”. The flip side is that you cannot assume the great responsibility if you do not have the great power. Spiderman’s ability to help and save people in danger (light side) came from his enormous strength and his ability to beat the living s**t out of the bad guys (dark side).
Now I’m not suggesting that we will become superhero’s by practicing martial arts and save people from marauding villains. However, along with our increased ability to defend ourselves (do violence to some b******d that seriously deserves it) comes a special kind of confidence. A confidence which ironically will sometimes allows us handle situations more assertively, so that we actually don’t have to resort to violence.
When training in the nastier applications, even in a friendly environment, many people still find it difficult to delve into that dark part of their nature and hence find it more difficult to make the applications work properly. As a youth, I was very timid, so I’ve been there. Now at 40 something years old and with years of Karate training, it comes much more naturally to me.
For somebody who is (for want of a better word) “timid” or uncomfortable with these applications, I would like to make some suggestions. When you look at a thug trying to intimidate someone, there is a big display of “peacocking”, sticking their chest out like Dolly Parton, jutting their head forward, arms loose from the sides like a cowboy about to go for his gun. That part is not too important. What is more important is that typically they invade the other persons personal space to intimidate and emotionally control them. The victim will typically respond by drawing back, pulling their arms into their body and making their own personal space as small as possible. This is actually quite a key tactic that thugs use instinctively. Why? Because it’s effective.
When practicing self defence techniques, experienced martial artists will happily move into their training partners space; whilst the more timid people will tend to pull back. It is because the more timid person wants to get away, whereas the more experienced person will seek to take control (just like the thug/victim scenario above).
Using a bunkai/Chi-na example, imagine an “attacker” grabs the “defenders” wrist with a cross grab (right hand to right wrist – or left to left). The defender traps the attackers grabbing hand with their own free hand, then moves both hands in a circle to apply the lock. The more confident “defenders” move slightly forward as they perform the technique, circling their hand near to the attackers body. This locks both the “attackers” elbow and wrist at right angles, making the lock easy to apply. The more timid people tend to perform the technique by circling their hands much closer to their own body. This resulted in both the “attackers” elbow and wrist not quite reaching the 90 angles and the lock being more difficult to apply.
The “victim” way of thinking, is simply to pull back and escape. It makes the self defence techniques more difficult to apply and less effective. I would suggest to anybody struggling with this, is that you have to think “control” before you think “escape”. If you escape, but have not put your opponent out of action, they will simply chase you. Think like the street thug, go into your opponent’s personal space and control them. Then your escape will be much easier.
Having said that, how does a small or timid person actually manage to access that “dark side”, in order to move in and control somebody? How do you turn your fear, dread and longing to escape into the will to move in and take control of somebody who is bigger, stronger and intent on hurting you?
Well if I can focus on women here for a minute, they are often told, “imagine somebody is going to rape you”. I would respectfully suggest that this can be a bit counter-productive as any woman faced with a would-be rapist is just going to want to get away even more, rather than to invade his personal space and get closer; which unfortunately is what is required for many self defence techniques. I would suggest a different image. Imagine that your child (or niece, nephew, friends child) is in danger and you are the only one there to protect that child. Now you have to go in rather than run away. Nothing in the world is more ferocious than a Mama bear when somebody messes with her cubs. To learn self defence against bigger, stronger men, sometimes you have to bring out the “Mama bear” in a woman. Even professional burglars will avoid breaking into houses with kids, because they know that mothers will fight to the death to protect a child.
As much as your instinct may tell you to draw back, escape and run away when you are threatened, you may need to disable your opponent before you can run so that they don’t run after you. That means you have to find your dark spot inside your soul, you have to access your inner “Mama bear” and you have to be prepared to go into your opponent before you go out. And as mentioned above, training like this leads to confidence, which leads to assertiveness, which in turn can defuses a situation before it kicks off.
Although many senior instructors are very proficient in their martial applications, you can see by the way that they teach their students that many of them have a very nurturing and caring side to their natures. Despite years of Karate training, I consider myself to be a very gentle person. Some people may consider this to be contradictory. Those who have trained for many years will consider it a natural consequence of our training. That’s the paradox. These traits are not opposites, they are the balance. The Yin and Yang.
All martial methods come with a code. The knights of old had their chivalry, to protect the weak. The ancient Samurai would sacrifice themselves without question for their master or their masters family.
Many of today’s martial arts from Japan and Korea end in “Do” (Judo, Kendo, Aikido, Tae Kwon Do, No Can Do etc). The “Do” means “way”. And by “way”, they mean a way to self development, self improvement and even self enlightenment.
All of these codes mean that although the individual develops fighting skills which can potentially destroy other human beings, they are better people and better members of their society. One might argue about the brutality of the Samurai (who would not hesitate to kill women and children of an enemy clan), but in the society that they lived in, unquestioning loyalty and total obedience was expected. They were therefore, very good members of their society. In today’s society, the “Do” expects you to be a more altruist and caring person.
In Part 1 of How To Put A “Whip” Into A Linear Punch, I looked at how to use the hips properly to generate a waveform motion through the body for basic punches. Many people struggle with this because as beginners we tend to move the whole torso as one, rather than generating movement from the hips and simply relaxing the rest of the torso so as to let it flow naturally. This puts tension into the body and takes away our power.
The method used in the first video is great for single basic techniques, especially Choku Zuki (straight punch in upright standing stance) and Gyaku Zuki (reverse punch), where we end with the hips square to front or just 10 to 15 degrees past square. Well in this next video we take it a step further. When you snap a towel (or your belt), you have a “pull back” just at the end of the forward movement. We can incorporate this “pull back” to gain extra whip/snap when we perform a snap punch, or multiple techniques (e.g. stepping punch, reverse punch or block then reverse punch). That pull back at the end of the first techniques not only puts an extra whip/snap on the end, but also initiates the hip movement for the second technique.
Now I know that not everybody will have been taught this way, so before you watch my video, please have a quick look at this one by Master Kagawa, 8th Dan Shotokan Karate and Technical Director of the JKS. As he performs Age Uke (rising block) you can clearly see his hips rotate fully, then just settle back slightly at the end of the movement. This settling back (or pull back) gives that extra little “whip” on the end the rising block and can be used to initiate the next technique (which is usually a reverse punch). So for anybody who has not seen this before (and there will be very many who haven’t), I’m not making it up. This is nothing new, it’s always been there, its just always explained in detail. I’ve been lucky with my teachers.